Logical Reasoning Notes

# Critical Reasoning Questions and Answers

## Critical Reasoning

Hello Uotians, the critical reasoning questions will make you scratch your head even if you are sure about the correct answers. Those questions will make you think from all possible directions and horizons. Relax, we will surely get through critical reasoning section if we understand the basic types of questions asked in management entrance exams like GMAT, CAT, XAT, MBA CET etc.

Types of Critical Reasoning Questions

• Statement course of action
• Strengthening & Weakening argument
• Statement Assumption
• Statement Conclusion
• Cause & Effect
• Facts Inferences Judgement

### Statement course of action

A sentence is given followed by another set of sentences from which you have to determine possible actions that can be taken to deal with a given condition.

For example

Statement: Severe drought is reported to have set in several parts of the country.

Courses of Action:

I. Government should immediately make arrangement for providing financial assistance to those affected.

II. Food, water and fodder should immediately be sent to all these areas to save the people and cattle.

A. Only I follows

B. Only II follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

E. Both I and II follow

Correct answer is option B

### Strengthening & Weakening argument

For example:

The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage?

A. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average Louisianan’s life.
B. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate.
C. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors.
D. Thirty percent of all Louisianans can expect to live longer than 77 years.
E. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United States.

Correct answer is option C

The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the passage?

A. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised downward. B. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana.

C. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianans who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years.

D. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianans than for Hawaiians.

E. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii.

Correct answer is option B

### Facts Inferences Judgement

In this type, you have to analyze whether the statement is a Fact(F), Judgement(J) or Inference(I). Facts can be questioned or verified. Inferences are conclusions or logical deductions based on the facts. Judgement is basically opinion that is again subjective.

Inequitable distribution of all kinds of resources is certainly one of the strongest and most sinister sources of conflict – J

Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us – they only change in character – I

Extensive disarmament is the only insurance for our future; imagine the amount of resources that can be released and redeployed – J

The economies of the industrialized western world derive 20% of their income from the sale of all kinds of arms – F

### Statement Assumption

A sentence is given followed by another set of sentences from which you have to determine possible assumptions

For example

Statement: It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 5 or so.

Assumptions:

I. At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.

II. The schools do not admit children after six years of age.

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit

C. Either I or II is implicit

D. Neither I nor II is implicit

E. Both I and II are implicit

Correct answer is option A

### Statement Conclusion

A sentence is given followed with another set sentences from which you have to determine possible conclusion.

For example

Statements: The old order changed yielding place to new.

Conclusions: I. Change is the law of nature.

II. Discard old ideas because they are old.

A. Only conclusion I follows

B. Only conclusion II follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

E. Both I and II follow

Correct answer is option A

### Cause & Effect

A set of 2 sentences is given and you have to determine which part acts as ’cause’ or ‘effect’.

For example:

I. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.

II. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes

D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Correct answer is option E

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